(Herman and Brodhead 1984) Demonstration elections

Herman, Edward S.; Brodhead, Frank. Demonstration elections: U.S.-staged elections in the Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and El Salvador. Boston: South End Press; 1984.

Herman and Brodhead expose elections held in U.S. client states as propaganda exercises for the consumption of the American public, rather than genuine acts of democratic self-determination. The authors point out that even apart from issues related to fraud in the voting process itself or in the reporting of the results, an election cannot be a valid measure of the will of the people if it is conducted under repressive conditions where freedom of speech, of the press, and of political organization and assembly are absent; where political candidates, political operatives, and the general public are subject to widespread violent terrorization by one political faction; or where the nation is under foreign military occupation.



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